What are the Benefits of Vitamin B12?

Updated by Chrissy Rojas

Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is an essential nutrient that plays a critical role in many bodily functions. It is vital for maintaining nerve health, producing DNA, and aiding in red blood cell formation. A deficiency in vitamin B12 can lead to various health issues, making it important to ensure adequate intake through diet or supplements. One shot of Ketone-IQ + Caffeine has 300% your Daily Value.

Red Blood Cell Formation

  • A study found that vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to ineffective red blood cell formation, resulting in anemia (1).
  • Another research article highlighted that supplementation with vitamin B12 significantly improves red blood cell counts in individuals with deficiency (2).

Brain Health

  • Research indicates that low levels of vitamin B12 are associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia in older adults (3).
  • A review of studies concluded that vitamin B12 supplementation could slow cognitive decline in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (4).

Energy Levels

  • Studies show that individuals with vitamin B12 deficiency often experience fatigue and low energy levels, which improve with supplementation (5).
  • Clinical trials have demonstrated that vitamin B12 supplementation can reduce fatigue in those with deficiency (6).

Bone Health

  • Research has shown a correlation between low vitamin B12 levels and decreased bone mineral density, leading to osteoporosis (7).
  • Supplementation with vitamin B12 has been associated with improved bone health (8).


  • Vitamin B12 plays a role in the synthesis of serotonin, a neurotransmitter that affects mood. Deficiency Vitamin B12 has been linked to an increased risk of depression. (9)
  • Clinical evidence suggests that vitamin B12 supplementation can improve depressive symptoms, particularly in those with a deficiency (10).

Heart Health

  • Research indicates that high homocysteine levels are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, and vitamin B12 helps lower these levels (11 ,12)


  1. Stabler, S. P., & Allen, R. H. (2004). Vitamin B12 deficiency as a worldwide problem. Annual review of nutrition, 24, 299–326. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.nutr.24.012003.132440
  2. Green, R., & Miller, J. W. (2022). Vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamins and hormones, 119, 405–439. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.vh.2022.02.003
  3. Smith, A. D., Warren, M. J., & Refsum, H. (2018). Vitamin B
    . Advances in food and nutrition research, 83, 215–279. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.afnr.2017.11.005
  4. Moore, E., Mander, A., Ames, D., Carne, R., Sanders, K., & Watters, D. (2012). Cognitive impairment and vitamin B12: a review. International psychogeriatrics, 24(4), 541–556. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1041610211002511
  5. Allen L. H. (2009). How common is vitamin B-12 deficiency?. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 89(2), 693S–6S. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2008.26947A
  6. Obeid R, Andrès E, Češka R, Hooshmand B, Guéant-Rodriguez R-M, Prada GI, Sławek J, Traykov L, Ta Van B, Várkonyi T, et al. Diagnosis, Treatment and Long-Term Management of Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Adults: A Delphi Expert Consensus. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2024; 13(8):2176. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13082176
  7. Tucker, K. L., Hannan, M. T., Qiao, N., Jacques, P. F., Selhub, J., Cupples, L. A., & Kiel, D. P. (2005). Low plasma vitamin B12 is associated with lower BMD: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, 20(1), 152–158. https://doi.org/10.1359/JBMR.041018
  8. Dai, Z., & Koh, W. P. (2015). B-vitamins and bone health--a review of the current evidence. Nutrients, 7(5), 3322–3346. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7053322
  9. Tiemeier, H., van Tuijl, H. R., Hofman, A., Meijer, J., Kiliaan, A. J., & Breteler, M. M. (2002). Vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine in depression: the Rotterdam Study. The American journal of psychiatry, 159(12), 2099–2101. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.159.12.2099
  10. Almeida, O. P., Ford, A. H., Hirani, V., Singh, V., vanBockxmeer, F. M., McCaul, K., & Flicker, L. (2014). B vitamins to enhance treatment response to antidepressants in middle-aged and older adults: results from the B-VITAGE randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science, 205(6), 450–457. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.114.145177
  11. Homocysteine Studies Collaboration (2002). Homocysteine and risk of ischemic heart disease and stroke: a meta-analysis. JAMA, 288(16), 2015–2022. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.288.16.2015
  12. Wald, D. S., Law, M., & Morris, J. K. (2002). Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease: evidence on causality from a meta-analysis. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 325(7374), 1202. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.325.7374.1202

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